100g $250 300 1/8 tsp servings
Dosage: Start 1 tsp a day first 2 weeks then you can move down to 1/2 tsp a day for 2 weeks then 1/4 tsp a day for 2 weeks then 1/8 tsp as needed.
the strongest Apigenin on the planet
Want to grow some new brain cells?
It’s called adult neurogenesis; keep reading.
“For most of the twentieth century, there was a general consensus that brain cells could not renew themselves once the developmental period was over. Then, especially over the last two decades, overwhelming evidence gradually accumulated for the capacity of new neurons to be born in the adult brain in two clearly defined locations: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is well known to play important roles in learning and memory, and this adult DG neurogenesis has not only been implicated in memory but has led to ideas that it could be harnessed to treat neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders.”
During senescence, cells express molecules called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), including growth factors, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteases. The SASP induces a chronic low-grade inflammation adjacent to cells and tissues, leading to degenerative diseases. The anti- inflammatory activity of flavonoids was investigated on SASP expression in senescent fibroblasts. Effects of flavonoids on SASP expression such as IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, CXCL1, MCP-2 and MMP-3 and signaling molecules were examined in bleomycin-induced senescent BJ cells. In vivo activity of apigenin on SASP suppression was identified in the kidney of aged rats. Among the five naturally-occurring flavonoids initially tested, apigenin and kaempferol strongly inhibited the expression of SASP. These flavonoids inhibited NF-kB p65 activity via the IRAK1/IkBa signaling pathway and expression of IkBz. Blocking IkBz expression especially reduced the expression of SASP. A structure-activity relationship study using some synthetic flavones demonstrated that hydroxyl substitutions at C-20,30,40,5 and 7 were important in inhibiting SASP production. Finally, these results were verified by results showing that the oral administration of apigenin significantly reduced elevated levels of SASP and IkBz mRNA in the kidneys of aged rats. This study is the first to show that certain flavonoids are inhibitors of SASP production, partially related to NF-kB p65 and IkBz signaling pathway, and may effectively protect or alleviate chronic low-grade inflammation in degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and late-stage cancer. Inhibitory activity of apigenin on IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1b was the most potent among the five flavonoids that were tested (86.5%, 60.9%, and 94.9% at 10 mM, respectively).
Apigenin and preventing/reversing alcohol liver injury.
“In conclusion, our present results demonstrate that apigenin can exert an inhibitory effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and LPS-induced inflammatory response in the cultured BRL cells, and its mechanisms may be related to the reduction of CYP2E1 expression, increment of antioxidant ability, and regulation of inflammatory gene expression. These effects of apigenin may be good for the prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver injury.”
You want high NAD+ levels. ( CD38 is a key enzyme involved in the degradation of NAD+) Apigenin blocks CD38.
Flavonoid apigenin is an inhibitor of the NAD+ ase CD38: implications for cellular NAD+ metabolism, protein acetylation, and treatment of metabolic syndrome
“Metabolic syndrome is a growing health problem worldwide. It is therefore imperative to develop new strategies to treat this pathology. In the past years, the manipulation of NAD+ metabolism has emerged as a plausible strategy to ameliorate metabolic syndrome. In particular, an increase in cellular NAD+ levels has beneficial effects, likely because of the activation of sirtuins. Previously, we reported that CD38 is the primary NAD+ase in mammals. Moreover, CD38 knockout mice have higher NAD+ levels and are protected against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here, we show that CD38 regulates global protein acetylation through changes in NAD+ levels and sirtuin activity. In addition, we characterize two CD38 inhibitors: quercetin and apigenin. We show that pharmacological inhibition of CD38 results in higher intracellular NAD+ levels and that treatment of cell cultures with apigenin decreases global acetylation as well as the acetylation of p53 and RelA-p65. Finally, apigenin administration to obese mice increases NAD+ levels, decreases global protein acetylation, and improves several aspects of glucose and lipid homeostasis.”
“Scientists are discovering new ways that NAD+ facilitates healthy longevity.
NAD+ levels markedly decline with age, creating an energy deficit that decreases the body’s ability to retain youthful function.
To give you an idea how impactful NAD+ can be, by age 50 a typical person may have only half the NAD+ they did in youth. By age 80, NAD+ levels drop to only 1% to 10% expressed in youth.
Deficiency of NAD+ predisposes us to accelerated aging and impedes our ability to fully benefit from resveratrol.
Apigenin prevents age related testosterone decline.
(APIGENIN) : Decreases COX2 while increasing StAR thus suppressing age related testosterone decline.
“During the course of male aging, circulating levels of testosterone decline [1, 2], resulting in decreases in muscle function, bone density, sex function and other physiological functions [3-5]. It was also observed that serum testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in men with Alzheimer’s disease in comparison to non-demented and age-matched men [6, 7]. Supplementation with testosterone reduced β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylation of τ protein, two bio-markers of the disease [8-10]. The studies suggested that low blood testosterone is a possible risk factor for development of Alzheimer’s disease . To improve the health of aging males, especially those suffering from age-associated hypogonadism, we have been attempting to determine if it is possible to delay the age-related decline in blood testosterone concentration.
Testosterone is mainly synthesized in testicular Leydig cells from substrate cholesterol and then released into the circulation . It is known that the levels of blood testosterone are affected by multiple physiological and biochemical factors associated with aging . It has also been shown that the primary site for the decline in blood testosterone appears to be at the level of testosterone biosynthesis in aging Leydig cells . The rate-limiting step in testosterone biosynthesis is the transfer of the substrate cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane to initiate the steroidogenic process . Previous studies reported that a newly synthesized protein induced by trophic hormone, namely the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, plays a critical function at this step by facilitating the mitochondrial cholesterol transfer [16-18]. A large body of evidence demonstrated that the levels of StAR protein expression strongly affect testosterone production in Leydig cells . However, StAR protein expression also decreases during the course of Leydig cell aging, and the cholesterol supply to the mitochondrial inner membrane is reduced in aged Leydig cells [20-22]. These studies implicated the involvement of an age-related decline in StAR gene expression in the decrease in testosterone production.
In addition, our studies have demonstrated that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, an isoform of cyclooxygenase) increases during Leydig cell aging, a process that enhances the COX2-dependent inhibition of StAR gene expression. Consequently, the age-related increase in COX2 results in decreases in StAR gene expression and testosterone biosynthesis. When COX2 activity was inhibited, StAR protein expression and testosterone production were increased. Moreover, feeding aged rats with a selective COX2 inhibitor reversed the decreased StAR protein and blood testosterone concentration [23, 24].
Further studies showed that the observed COX2-dependent inhibition of StAR gene expression involves the negative signaling through an autocrine loop consisting of COX2-thromboxane A synthase (TBXAS)-thromboxane A2 (TBX A2)-receptor, in which TBX A2 generated by the co-action of COX2 and TBXAS is released from Leydig cells, and then binds to its receptors [25, 26]. These studies further indicated that the TBX A2-receptor complex regulate the expression or stability of DAX-1 (dosage sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) protein, a transcriptional repressor of StAR gene expression. Blocking the COX2-dependent signaling through this loop reduced DAX-1 protein and increased the sensitivity of Leydig cells to trophic hormone stimulation, resulting in dramatic increases in StAR gene expression and testosterone production in aged Leydig cells. These studies suggested that it is possible to delay the age-related decline in testosterone production by interrupting the signaling through this loop at any step, by either inhibiting the activity of COX2 or TBXAS, or by blocking the TBX A2 receptor.
We have continued the studies in an attempt to identify natural compounds in food or food supplements that could enhance StAR gene expression in Leydig cells by intervention in the mechanism.
After screening a group of compounds, the present study identified a natural flavonoid, apigenin that interrupted the COX2-dependent signaling by blocking the TBX A2 receptor and increased StAR gene expression and steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells.”
Apigenin as an Anti-Aging Skin Treatment
Skin aging is a complex biological process prematurely induced by innate and external factors. We evaluated the anti-aging effects of apigenin, a plant flavone, on human skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation. A total of 25 female subjects applied a 10% apigenin- containing regimen (eye cream, moisturizer, and serum) to the skin of their faces for eight weeks (56 days), twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. At day 28 (the four-week mark) and day 56 (the eight-week mark), we analyzed the treated areas for dermal density, skin elasticity; the length and area of crow’s feet; transepidermal water loss; facial and skin tone evenness; brightness; moisture retention/hydration; the size, depth, and number of wrinkles; roughness; skin hydration; and barrier function. We also evaluated the subjects’ perception and tolerance of the cream. The test regimen was well-tolerated by the study participants for various subjective parameters, including sensory attributes and improvement of overall skin conditions. The anti-aging regimen did not affect the skin barrier function and maintained baseline hydration. The test treatment provided statistically significant improvements in skin roughness and the depth of fine lines and wrinkles for fine wrinkles after 28 days of treatment. Furthermore, significant improvements were measured in skin elasticity for the firmness, maximal amplitude, and extensibility parameters after 56 days of treatment. The anti-aging regimen had a significant effect on skin elasticity. Patient perception of the apigenin containing regimen was excellent. Our findings support the evidence that apigenin can improve several markers of aging. Apigenin use in skin care products may contribute to objectively improved parameters of skin health and subjective appearance of photo-aged skin.
Best taken internally
Apigenin has been demonstrated to have VERY POWERFUL anti anxiety, anti depressive, anti Alzheimer’s and anti-excitotoxic neuroprotective capabilities
What is EXCITOTOXICITY?
“Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm. Excitotoxins like NMDA and kainic acid which bind to these receptors, as well as pathologically high levels of glutamate, can cause excitotoxicity by allowing high levels of calcium ions (Ca2+) to enter the cell. Ca2+ influx into cells activates a number of enzymes, including phospholipases, endonucleases, and proteases such as calpain. These enzymes go on to damage cell structures such as components of the cytoskeleton, membrane, and DNA.
Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure or ototoxicity), and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, alcoholism or alcohol withdrawal and especially over-rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal, and also Huntington’s disease. Other common conditions that cause excessive glutamate concentrations around neurons are hypoglycemia.”
In the present study, apigenin inhibited the glutamate-induced [Ca2+]i increase by inhibiting AMPA-, NMDA-, and depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx. Apigenin also inhibited the metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced [Ca2+]i increase and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. These data suggest a possibility that apigenin inhibits synaptic transmission. Reducing [Mg2+]o bathing cultured CNS neurons elicits [Ca2+]i spikes that depends upon glutaminergic synaptic transmission (Rose et al, 1990; Shen et al, 1996; Abel et al, 2000). In this study, apigenin inhibited the synaptically mediated low [Mg2+]o-induced [Ca2+]i spikes. These data suggest that apigenin inhibits glutamatergic synaptic transmission in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting AMPA-, NMDA-, and depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx as well as metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced release of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores. However, it has not been studied in the present study whether apigenin affects the release of glutamate in the presynaptic sites, although apigenin inhibited the high K+-induced [Ca2+]i increase in the soma.
Apigenin has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells (Wang et al, 2001), or glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons (Losi et al, 2004). Our results showed that apigenin inhibits glutamate-induced calcium signaling. These results suggest a possibility that inhibitory effects of apigenin on glutamate-induced calcium signaling can partly be due to the neuroprotection against neuronal cell death, demonstrating a possibility that apigenin might be used as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, partly through inhibition of calcium signaling.
Apigenin (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone) is a principal ingredient of Cirsium japonicum. These experiments were performed to determine whether apigenin has neuroprotective effects against kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of apigenin (25, 50 mg/kg) decreased the seizure scores induced by KA injection (40 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. In addition, the convulsion onset time was significantly delayed by apigenin administration. Moreover, we found that apigenin blocked KA-induced seizure-form electroencephalogram (EEG) discharge activity in the brain cortex. In hippocampal cells, apigenin inhibited KA-induced excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To study the possible mechanisms underlying the in vitro neuroprotective effects of apigenin against KA-induced cytotoxicity, we also examined the effect of apigenin on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevations in cultured hippocampal neurons and found that apigenin treatment dose-dependently inhibited intracellular ROS elevation. The remarkable reduction of glutathione (GSH) levels induced by KA in hippocampal tissues was reversed by apigenin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, similar results were obtained after pretreatment with free radical scavengers such as trolox and dimethylthiourea (DMTU). Finally, after confirming the protective effect of apigenin in hippocampal CA3 region, we found apigenin is an active compound in KA-induced neuroprotection. These results collectively indicate that apigenin alleviates KA-induced excitotoxicity by quenching ROS as well as inhibiting GSH depletion in hippocampal neurons.
“Androgen-inducible transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1) derived from dermal papilla cells (DPCs) is a catagen inducer that mediates hair growth suppression in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). In this study, a cell-based assay system was developed to monitor TGF-β1 promoter activity and then used to evaluate the effects of activated TGF-β1 promoter in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). To accomplish this, a pMetLuc-TGF-β1 promoter plasmid that expresses the luciferase reporter gene in response to TGF-β1 promoter activity was constructed. Treatment of HaCaT with dihydrotestosterone, which is known to be a primary factor of AGA, resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in TGF-β1 promoter activity. However, treatment of HaCaT with the TGF-β1 inhibitor, curcumin, resulted in a concentration-dependant decrease in TGF-β1 expression. Subsequent use of this assay system to screen TGF-β1 revealed that HaCaT that were treated with apigenin showed decreased levels of TGF-β1 expression. In addition, treatment with apigenin also significantly increased the proliferation of both SV40T-DPCs (human DPCs) and HaCaT cells. Furthermore, apigenin stimulated the elongation of hair follicles in a rat vibrissa hair follicle organ culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin, which is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, stimulates hair growth through downregulation of the TGF-β1 gene.”
* LONG HALF LIFE; builds up over time. “Blood kinetics showed a high elimination half-time (91.8 hr), a distribution volume of 259 mL, and a plasmatic clearance of 1.95 mL/hr. All of the parameters calculated from these experiments suggested a slow metabolism of apigenin, with a slow absorption and a slow elimination phase. Thus, a possible accumulation of this flavonoid in the body can be hypothesized.”https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955286310000379
200 MORE SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON APIGENIN