One of the more common uses of this leaf is for memory disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease.
Ginkgo biloba has been reported to improve cognitive function in older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. We conducted an open-label phase II study of this botanical product in symptomatic irradiated brain tumor survivors.
Some improvement in quality of life and cognitive function were noted with Ginkgo biloba. However, treatment with Ginkgo biloba was associated with a high dropout rate.
Anti-Cancer - Recent studies conducted with various molecular, cellular and whole animal models have revealed that leaf extracts of Ginkgo biloba may have anticancer (chemopreventive) properties that are related to their antioxidant, anti‐angiogenic and gene‐regulatory actions.
The antioxidant and associated anti‐lipoperoxidative effects of Ginkgo extracts appear to involve both their flavonoid and terpenoid constituents.
In humans, Ginkgo extracts inhibit the formation of radiation‐induced (chromosome‐damaging) clastogenic factors and ultraviolet light‐induced oxidative stress – effects that may also be associated with anticancer activity.
In this study, we examined epidemiological data regarding effects of commonly used herbal supplements on risk for ovarian cancer and sought supporting biological evidence.
This combined epidemiological and biological data provide supportive evidence for further studies of the chemopreventive or therapeutic effects of Ginkgo and ginkgolides on ovarian cancer.
The present study was conducted in order to further define the role of PBR in cancer and to extend our recent findings regarding the possible anticancer effects of the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761.
Since EGb 761 treatment opposes this aggressive phenotype by decreasing PBR overexpression, it could be useful in preventing or treating cancer invasiveness and metastasis.
Cytotoxicity - In this study they measured the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) containing 22%-27% flavonoids (ginkgo-flavone glycosides) and 5%-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides) on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
Ginkgo biloba extract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Additionally, Ginkgo biloba extract can decrease PCNA and increase p53 expression in HepG2 cells.
Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and induces cancer cell apoptosis, which may sensitize pancreatic tumor cells to chemotherapy. Kaempferol may have clinical applications as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
The results suggest that kaempferol and quercetin, two components of EGb 761, effectively induce caspase‐3‐dependent apoptosis of oral cavity cancer cells and can be considered as possible anti‐oral cavity cancer agents.
Antioxidant - This study was conducted to examination whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), a Chinese herb with antioxidant activity, could reduce cytokine-induced monocyte/human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) interaction, a pivotal early event in atherogenesis.
GBE could reduce cytokine-stimulated endothelial adhesiveness by downregulating intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, nuclear factor-κB and activator protein 1 activation, and adhesion molecule expression in HAECs, supporting the notion that the natural compound Ginkgo biloba may have potential implications in clinical atherosclerosis disease.
These results demonstrate that a flavonoid containing extract initiates an adaptive transcriptional response that augments the “antioxidant status” of the cells and inhibits DNA damage. These in vitro studies using GeneChips demonstrated a promising strategy for identifying nutritional supplement induced cellular responses that may have a role in counteracting chronic human diseases.